Schaefer lab - Publication list

Please note download of pdf files for personal use only.

| 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 |

In Progress Press release
Renoult J., Blüthgen, N., Binkenstein, J., Weiner, C.N., Werner, M. & H. Martin Schaefer: The relative importance of color signaling for plant generalization in pollination networks. Oikos in press  
Camargo, M. G. G., Cazetta, E., Morellato L. P. C and H. M. Schaefer (2014): Characterizing background heterogeneity in visual communication. Basic and Applied Ecology In press  

Dehling, D. M., Töpfer, T., Schaefer, H. M., Jordano, P., Böhning-Gaese, K., & M. Schleuning (2014): Functional relationships behind and beyond species richness patterns. Global Change Biology. In press



Schaefer H. M. & G. D. Ruxton (2014): Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants. Biology Letters 10: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0134.  
Beaulieu, M. & H. M. Schaefer (2014): The proper time for antioxidant consumption. Physiology & Behavior 128: 54-59.  
Klauke, N., Jansen, J., Kramer, J. & H. M. Schaefer (2014): How to feed the multitude: food allocation rules in a cooperatively breeding parrot. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 68: 1037-1047  
Hartmann, S, Schaefer H. M. & G. Segelbacher: Development of 12 microsatellite loci for the endangered Pale-headed Brushfinch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) and their cross-amplification in two co-occurring Brushfinches (2014). J. Ornithol. 155: 835-839.  
Ruxton, G. D., Wilkinson, D., Schaefer, H. M. & T. N. Sherratt 2014: Why fruit rots: theoretical support for Janzen's theory of microbe-macrobe competition. Proceedings Royal Society 281, 20133320.
Beaulieu, M., Haas, A. & H. M. Schaefer 2014: Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 370-375.  
Schaefer, H. M, Valido, A. & P. Jordano 2014: Birds see and use the true colours of fruits to live off the fat of the land. Proceedings Royal Society 281 : 20132516.  
Wang, Z. & H. M. Schaefer 2014: Avian seed disperser assess fruit quality based on advertisement but do not sanction cheaters. Oecologia 174: 1293-1300.  
Renoult, J., Valido, A., Jordano. P. & H. M. Schaefer 2014: Adaptations of flower and fruit colours to diversified mutualists. New Phytologist 201:678-686.  


Lüdtke, B., Moser, I., Santiago-Alarcon, D., Fischer, M., Kalko, E.K.V., Schaefer H. M. Suarez-Rubio, M., Tschapka, M. & S.C. Renner 2013: Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs, and Sylvia atricapilla. Plos One e81395.

New Phytologist Cover 194 2
Rolshausen G., Segelbacher, G., Hermes C., Hobson K. & H. M. Schaefer 2013: Individual differences in migratory behaviour shape population genetic structure and microhabitat choice in sympatric blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Ecology and Evolution 3 : 4278-4289.
Broom M., Ruxton G. D. & H. M. Schaefer 2013: Signal verification can promote reliable signalling Proceedings Royal Society B 280: 20131560.
Mettler, R., Schaefer H.M., Chernetsov, N., Fiedler, W., Hobson, K.A., Ilieva, M., Imhof, E., Johnsen, A., Renner, S.C., Rolshausen, G., Serrano, D., Wesolowski, T. & G. Segelbacher 2013: Contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation among Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with divergent migratory orientations in Europe. PloS One e81365.
Santiago-Alarcon, D., Havelka, P.., Pineda, E. Segelbacher G & H. M. Schaefer 2013: Urban forests as hubs for novel zoonosis: blood meal analysis, seasonal variation in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors, and avian haemosporidians. Parasitology 140: 1799-1810.
Renoult, J. P., Thomann, M., Schaefer, H. M., & P-O. Cheptou 2013 : Selection on quantitative colour variation in Centaurea cyanus : the role of the pollinators’ visual system. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2415-2427.
Binkenstein, J., Renoult, J. & H. M. Schaefer: Increasing land use decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands. Oecologia 173: 461-471.
Santiago-Alarcon, D., Mettler, R., Segelbacher G & H. M. Schaefer 2013: Haemosporidian parasitism in the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) in relation to spring arrival date and body condition. Journal of Avian Biology 44: 521-530.
Merilaita, S., Schaefer H. M. & M. Dimitrova (2013). What is camouflage through distractive markings? Behavioral Ecology 24: e1271-e1272.

Ruxton, G. & H. M. Schaefer : Game theory, multi-modal signalling and the evolution of communication. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67 : 1417-1423.

Beaulieu, M. & H. M. Schaefer: Self-medication against oxidative stress. Animal Behaviour 86: 17-24.

Camargo, M. G. G., Cazetta, E., Schaefer, H. M, and Morellato L. P. C. Fruit color and contrast in seasonal habitats - a case study from a cerrado savanna. Oikos 122: 1335-1342.

Renoult, J., Courtiol, A. & H. M. Schaefer: Stimulation landscape -- a framework to compare visual communication among perceivers. Functional Ecology 27: 718-729.

Butchart S. H. M., McCarthy, D. P., Balmford, A., Green, J. M. H., Bennun, L. A., Buchanan, G. M., Burgess, N. D. Donald, P. F., Fischpool, L. D. C., Garnett, S. T., Leonard, D. L., Maloney, R. F., Schaefer, H. M., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Symes, A., & Wiedenfeld, D. A: Response. Science 339: 271-272.
Junker, R., Blüthgen, N., Brehm, T., Binkenstein, J., Paulus, J., Schaefer, H. M. & M. Stang 2013: Specialisation on traits as structuring mechanisms of flower-visitor networks and promoter of diversity. Functional Ecology 27: 329-341.
Kalliope E. Stournaras, Eugenia Lo, Katrin Bˆhning-Gaese, Eliana Cazetta, D. Matthias Dehling, Matthias Schleuning, Mary Caswell Stoddard, Michael J. Donoghue, Richard O. Prum and H. Martin Schaefer, 2013. How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales. New Phytologist 198: 617-629. PDF

The definitive version is available at
Klauke, N., Segelbacher, G. & H. M. Schaefer 2013: Reproductive success depends on the quality of helpers and on female experience in the endangered, cooperative El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi). Molecular Ecology 22: 2011-2027.


McCarthy, D. P., Donald, P. F., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Buchanan, G. M., Balmford, A., Green, J. M. H., Bennun, L. A., Burgess, N. D., Fischpool, L. D. C., Garnett, S. T., Leonard, D. L., Maloney, R. F., Morling, P., Schaefer, H. M., Symes, A., Wiedenfeld, D. A., & S. H. M. Butchart 2012: Financial costs of meeting global biodiversity conservation targets : current spending and unmet needs. Science 338: 946-949. PDF
Schaefer, H. M & G. Ruxton 2012: By-product information can stabilise the reliability of animal communication. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 2412-2421. New Phytologist Cover 194 2

Santiago-Alarcon, D., Valkiunas, V. & H. M. Schaefer 2012: Diptera vectors of avian haemosporidian parasites: untangling parasite life cycles and their taxonomy. Biological Reviews 87: 928-964.

Brockmeyer, T. & H. M. Schaefer 2012: Do nectar feeders in nature reserves affect floral visitation rate by hummingbirds in the Andes? Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 294-300
Ruxton, G. D. & H. M. Schaefer 2012: The conservation physiology of seed dispersal. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 367: 1708-1718.
Santiago-Alarcon, D., Havelka, P., Schaefer HM, & G. Segelbacher 2012: Bloodmeal analysis in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors reveals avian malaria parasites in human blood. Plos One e31098
Cooney L. J., van Klink J. W., Hughes, N. M., Perry, N. B., Schaefer, H. M., Menzies I. J. & Kevin S. Gould 2012: Red leaf margins indicate increased polygodial content and function as visual signals to reduce herbivory in Pseudowintera colorata. New Phytologist 194: 488-497.
Wang Z. & H. M. Schaefer 2012: Resting orientation enhances prey survival on strongly structured background. Ecological Research 27: 107-113.
Cazetta, E., Galetti M., Rezende, E. L. & H. M. Schaefer 2012: On the reliability of visual communication in vertebrate-dispersed fruits. Journal of Ecology 100: 277-286.



Schaefer, H. M. & G. Ruxton 2011: Plant-animal communication. Oxford University


book plant-animal communication
Schaefer, H. M. 2011: Why fruits go to the dark side. Acta Oecologica 37: 604-610.
Renoult, J. Schaefer, H. M., Verrier, D. & M. J. Charpentier 2011: Coupling of signal detectability and reliability shaped the complex facial colouration of mandrills. Plos One 6: 29117.
Ruxton, G. D. & H. M. Schaefer 2011: Resolving current disagreements and ambiguities in the terminology of animal communication. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 2574-2585.
Santiago-Alarcon, D., Bloch, R., Rolshausen, G. Schaefer, H. M. & G. Segelbacher: Diversity of avian haemosporidians along a recently evolved migratory divide. Journal of Parasitology 138: 824-835.
Masello JF, Quillfeldt, P, Munimanda, GK, Klauke N, Segelbacher, G., Schaefer HM, Failla, M., Cort M and Y. Moodley 2011: The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot. Frontiers in Zoology 8: 16. DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-8-16
Ruxton, G. & H. M. Schaefer 2011: Alternative explanations for apparent floral scent mimicry. Journal of Ecology 99: 899-904.
M. Schleuning, N. Blüthgen, M., J. Braun, H. M. Schaefer & Böhning-Gaese 2011: Specialization and interaction strength in a tropical seed-dispersal network differ among forest strata. Ecology 92: 26-36
Catoni, C., Metzger, B. Schaefer, H. M. & F. Bairlein 2011: Garden warbler, Sylvia borin, perceive carotenoids in the food but differ strongly in their individual food choice Journal of Ornithology 152:153-159.
Valido, A., Schaefer, H. M. & P. Jordano 2011: Color, design, and reward: phenotypic integration of fleshy fruit displays. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 751-760.
Steiger, S., Schmitt, T. & H. M. Schaefer 2011: On the evolution of chemical information transfer. Proceedings Royal Society B 278: 970-979.
Lucas, M. N. Klauke, H. M. Schaefer, M. Heinrich & G. Segelbacher 2010: Isolation of eleven microsatellite loci in the El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi). Molecular Ecology Resources 10: 751-754.  
Flörchinger, M., J. Braun, K. Böhning-Gaese & H. M. Schaefer 2010: Differential fruit choice of primates and birds is explained by plant and fruit morphology not fruit chemistry. Oecologia 164: 151-161.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Ruxton 2010: Communication theory and the form of receiver-mediated selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25: 383-384  
Rolshausen, G., K. Hobson & H. M. Schaefer: Spring arrival along a migratory divide of sympatric blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Oecologia 162: 175-183PDF  
Schaefer, H. M. 2010: Visual communication: evolution, ecology, and functional mechanisms. In: Animal Behaviour: Evolution & Mechanisms Peter M. Kappeler (ed.), pp 3-28, Springer, Heidelberg.  
Lomáscolo, S. & H. M. Schaefer 2010: Signal convergence in fruits: a result of selection by frugivores. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 614-624.PDF  
Rolshausen G., Segelbacher, G., Hobson K. & H. M. Schaefer 2009: A recent migratory divide facilitates the contemporary evolution of reproductive isolation and phenotypic divergence in sympatry. Current Biology 19: 2097-2101.PDF  Linklist
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Ruxton 2009: Deception in plants: mimicry or perceptual exploitation? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24: 676-685PDF  
Klauke, N., Masello JF, Quillfeldt P, Segelbacher G 2009: Isolation of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the burrowing parrot (Cyanoliseus patagonus). Journal of Ornithology 150: 921-924.  
Fadzly, N., J. Cameron, H. M. Schaefer & K. C. Burns: Ontogenetic colour patterns in an insular tree: signalling to extinct browsing birds? New Phytologist 184: 495-501.PDF
Catoni, C., Peters, A. & H. M. Schaefer: Flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1649 -1657..PDF
Schaefer H. M. & J. Braun 2009: Reliable cues and signals of fruit quality are contingent on the habitat in black elder (Sambucus nigra). Ecology 90: 1564-1573PDF  
Ruxton, G. & H. M. Schaefer: The timing of food-deceptive flowers: a commentary on Internicola et al. (2008) Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1333-1336.  
Dimitrova, M., N. Stobbe, H. M. Schaefer & S. Merilaita: Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds. Proceedings Royal Society London B 276: 1905-1910.PDF  
Cazetta, E., H. M. Schaefer & M. Galetti 2009: Why are fruits colorful? The relative importance of achromatic and chromatic contrasts for detection by birds. Evolutionary Ecology 23: 233-244.PDF  
Burns, K., E. Cazetta, M. Galetti, A. Valido & H. M. Schaefer: Geographic patterns in fruit colour diversity –do leaves constrain the colours of fleshy fruits? Oecologia 159: 337-343.PDF  
Stobbe, N., M. Dimitrova, S. Merilaita & H. M. Schaefer: Chromaticity in the UV/blue range facilitates the search for achromatically background-matching prey in birds. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 346: 511-517.PDF  
Segelbacher G., Weis-Dootz T., Rolshausen G., Serrano D. & H. M. Schaefer 2008: Isolation of ten tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1108-1110. PDF


Catoni C., A. Peters & H. M. Schaefer 2008: Life-history trade-offs are influenced by the diversity, availability and interactions among dietary antioxidants. Animal Behaviour 76: 1107-1119.PDF  
Catoni, C., H. M. Schaefer, & A. Peters 2008: Fruit for health: The effect of anthocyanins on humoral immune response and food selection in a frugivorous bird. Functional Ecology 22: 649-654.PDF  Linklist
Schaefer, H. M., M. Rentzsch, M. Breuer 2008: Anthocyanins reduce fungal growth in fruits. Natural Product Communication 3: 1267-1272PDF  
Stobbe, N. & H. M. Schaefer: Enhancement of chromatic contrast increases predation risk for striped butterflies. Proceedings Royal Society B: 275: 1535-1541. PDF  
Schaefer, H. M., K. Spitzer & F. Bairlein 2008: Long-term effects of pre-experience determine nutrient and colour discrimination abilities in birds. Frontiers in Zoology 5: 4.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M., K. McGraw & C. Catoni: Birds use fruit colour as honest signals of antioxidant contents. Functional Ecology 22: 303-310. PDF
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Ruxton 2008: Fatal attraction -- carnivorous plants roll out the red carpet to lure insects. Biology Letters 4: 153-155.PDF  Hamburger Abendblatt
Cazetta, E., H. M. Schaefer & M. Galetti 2008: Does attraction to frugivores or defense against pathogens shape fruit pulp composition? Oecologia 155: 277-286.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M. & K. J. Gould: Modelling the evolution of leaf colouration with binary assumptions is barking up the wrong tree. Journal of Theoretical Biology 249: 638-639PDF  
Schaefer HM & Schaefer V 2007: The evolution of visual fruit signals: concepts and constraints. In: Dennis AJ, Schupp EW, Green RJ, Wescott DA (eds) Seed dispersal: Theory and its application in a changing world. CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp 59-77  
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Rolshausen 2007: Reply. How to investigate a putative signal? Stick to the right method when assessing the response of a receiver. Biol. Lett. 3: 152-153.PDF  
Rolshausen, G. & H. M. Schaefer 2007: Do aphids paint the tree red? Can herbivore resistance or photoprotection explain colourful leaves in autumn? Plant Ecology 191: 77-84.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Rolshausen 2007: Aphids do not attend to leaf colour as handicap signal, but to the handicap of reproductive investment. Biol. Lett. 3: 1-4.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M., Schaefer, V. & M. Vorobyev 2007: Are fruit colors adapted to consumer vision and birds equally efficient in detecting colorful signals? American Naturalist 169: S159-169.PDF  
Schaefer, H. M. & V. Schaefer 2006: The fruits of selectivity – how birds forage on Goupia glabra fruits. Journal for Ornithology 147: 638-643 BioEssays
Schaefer, H. M. & G. Rolshausen 2006: Do alternative hypotheses evoke ‚red alert’ among co-evolutionists? BioEssays 28: 960-961.
Schaefer, H. M. & N. Stobbe 2006: Disruptive coloration provides camouflage independent of background matching. Proc. R. Soc. London B. 273: 2427-2432.
Schaefer, H. M., Levey, D. J., Schaefer V. & M: L. Avery 2006: The role of chromatic and achromatic signals for fruit detection by birds. Behavioral Ecology 17: 784-789 (PDF pre-print).

Schaefer, H. M. & G. Rolshausen 2006: Plants on red alert – do insects pay attention? BioEssays 28 (1): BioEssays 28(1): 65-71PDF

Heinz, M., Schmidt V. & H. M. Schaefer (2005): New distributional information on the Jocotoco Antpitta (Formicariidae: Grallaria ridgelyi) in South Ecuador. Cotinga 23: 24-26.  
Schaefer H. M.& D. M. Wilkinson 2004: Red leaves, insects and coevolution, a red herring? Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 616-618. Trends Ecol. Evol.
Schaefer, H. M., V. Schmidt & D. J. Levey 2004: Plant-animal interactions signal new insights in communication. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 577-584.
Schmidt, V., H. M. Schaefer & H. Winkler 2004: Conspicuousness, not colour as foraging cue in plant-animal signaling. Oikos 106: 551-557.
Schaefer H. M. & V. Schmidt 2004: Detectability and content as opposing signal characteristics in fruits. Proceedings Royal Society London B 271: S370-S373. doi 10/1098/rsbl2004.0191PDF
Schmidt, V. & H. M. Schaefer 2004: Unlearned preferences of red facilitates recognition of palatable food in young omnivorous birds. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6: 919-925.PDF
Oppel, S., Schaefer, H. M., Schmidt, V. & B. Schröder 2004: Habitat selection of the Pale-headed Brushfinch, Atlapetes pallidiceps, the role of interspecific competition, and implications for management. Biological Conservation 118: 33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.07.006PDF
Oppel, S., H. M. Schaefer, V. Schmidt & B. Schröder 2004: How much suitable habitat is left for the last known population of the Pale-headed Brushfinch? Condor 106: 429-434.
Oppel, S., H. M. Schaefer, V. Schmidt & B. Schröder 2004: Cowbird parasitism of the Pale-headed Brush-Finch Atlapetes pallidiceps: Implications for conservation and management. Bird Conservation International 14: 63-75.
Schmidt, V. & H. M. Schaefer 2004: Der Orcessittich in Buenaventura – Hoffnung für eine bedrohte Art. Mittl. Zool. Ges. Art & Pop. Schutz 20: 20-22.
Schmidt, V. & H. M. Schaefer 2004: Pale-headed Brushfinch recovery project in Southwestern Ecuador 2002-2003. 13pp, published at
Schaefer H. M. & V. Schmidt 2004: Final report of the El Oro Parakeet project, Southwestern Ecuador 2002-2003. 11pp, published at
Schaefer, H. M., Schmidt V. & F. Bairlein 2003: Discrimination abilities for the main nutrients - which difference matters for choosy birds? Animal Behaviour 65: 531-541.PDF Cyanopsitta
Schaefer, H. M., Schmidt, V. & H. Winkler 2003: Testing the Defence Trade-off Hypothesis: how contents of nutrients and secondary compounds affect fruit removal. Oikos 102: 318-328.
Oppel, S., Schaefer H. M. & V. Schmidt 2003: First description of the nest, eggs, and breeding behavior of the Pale-headed Brushfinch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) from Ecuador. Wilson Bulletin 115 (4) 360-366.
Schaefer, H. M. 2003: Über den Einfluß von Fruchtinhaltsstoffen auf die Nahrungssuche von Vögeln. J. Ornithol. 144: 101-103.
Schaefer, H. M. & V. Schmidt 2003: Ecology and conservation of the El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi). Cyanopsitta 71: 10; 15-16 (including cover).
Schaefer H. M. & V. Schmidt 2002a: Feeding strategies and food intake of Blackcaps consuming ripe or unripe fruits and insects. J. Ornithol. 143: 341-350.  
Schaefer H. M. & V. Schmidt 2002b: Der Orces-Sittich: Projektbericht über den Schutz einer wenig bekannten, bedrohten Art. Mittl. Zool. Ges. Art & Pop. Schutz18: 22-23.  
Schmidt, V. & H. M. Schaefer 2002: The El Oro Parakeet – first insights in the ecology and implementation for further conservation actions. Cyanopsitta 66: 20-22.  
Schaefer, H. M., Schmidt, V. & J. Wesenberg 2002: Vertical stratification and caloric content of fleshy fruit production and standing crop in a tropical lowland forest. Biotropica 34: 244-253.  
Schaefer, H. M., Naef-Daenzer, B., Leisler, B., Schmidt, V., Müller, J. K. & K. Schulze-Hagen. 2000: Spatial behaviour in the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) during mating and breeding. J. Ornithol 141: 418-424.  
Krüger, T., Bohnet, V., Dierschke, J., Dietrich, K., Pegram, G. & H. M. Schaefer 2000: Die Brutvögel des Voslapper Grodens 2000 (Stadt Wilhelmshaven). Vogelkdl. Ber. Niedersachs. 32: 1-10.  
Schmidt, V., Schaefer, H. M. & B. Leisler 1999: Song behaviour and range use in the polygamous Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Acta Ornithologica 34: 209-213.  
Schulze-Hagen, K., Leisler, B., Schaefer, H. M. & V. Schmidt 1999: The breeding system of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola – a review of new results. Vogelwelt 120: 87-96.  
Lege, H. & H. M. Schaefer 1998: Nachweis einer Schwalbenmöwe (Larus sabini) in Südbaden. Naturschutz am südl. Oberrhein 2: 207-210  



| Martin Schaefer lab | Research | Members | Publications | Pictures |
| UNI-Home > Faculty > Biology I > Ecology |